So, I do not have have a smartphone anymore..
After a while I missed listening to music and podcasts; therefore, I bought an iPod Classic. To my delight I discovered that syncing music and podcast still works 😀 this is an excellent user experience of an old product that still works with the latest macOS version.
Download podcasts in the Apple Podcast app:
When you hookup an iPod it will appear in Finder, there you can sync podcasts with the iPod:
To the Apple engineers that build iPod support into Finder, 🥳 thank you!